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This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. J.-C). [36] Two columns were swallowed up in the medieval buildings that abutted the Pantheon on the east and were lost. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. English: An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. roma-pass.com. The Panthéon (French: [pɑ̃.te.ɔ̃], from the Classical Greek word πάνθειον, pántheion, ('temple to all the gods') is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.It is located in the area known as the Latin Quarter, standing atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, at the center of the Place du Panthéon which was named after it. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. [69], The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on;[70] starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. [75], Works modelled on, or inspired by, the Pantheon, Andrew J. Ekonomou. Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. traveldigg.com. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. The east pediment narrates the birth … Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. It was originally built as a temple to the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt about 126 AD during Hadrian 's reign. [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le Panthéon est lun des bâtiments le plus représentatif du centre de Rome. Media in category "Pantheon (Rome)" The following 75 files are in this category, out of 75 total. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. [44] This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. On 26 May 1929, this deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. Pantheon The Pantheon ( / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n / or US / ˈ p æ n θ i ɒ n / ; [1] Latin : Pantheon , [nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion meaning "[temple] of every god") is a former Roman temple , now a church, in Rome , Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the … Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. Jump to navigation Jump to search. [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. [48] Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. Image taken by Martin Olsson (mnemo on wikipedia and commons, martin@minimum.se), 2nd of May 2005. Buildings. Pantheon Rome … This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. Le Panthéon est un monument de style néo-classique situé dans le 5 e arrondissement de Paris.Au cœur du Quartier latin, sur la montagne Sainte-Geneviève, il est au centre de la place du Panthéon et entouré notamment de la mairie du 5 e arrondissement, du lycée Henri-IV, de l'église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, de la bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève et de la faculté de droit. Un panthéon est l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie : par exemple, le panthéon gréco-romain.Ce mot vient du grec : pan (« tous ») et théos (« dieu »), et signifie donc « tous les dieux ». The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. "[33] Twenty-eight cartloads of holy relics of martyrs were said to have been removed from the catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. Le temple et la coupole ronde caractéristique actuels ont été construits au deuxième siècle sous lempereur Hadrien, après que la bâtiment ait été endommagé par un grand incendie en 80 A.D.par un énorme incendie et que la foudre déclencha un nouvel incendie en 110. [14] Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed, even all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings. Date: 25 août 2013, 12:40:08: Source: Travail personnel: Auteur: Jebulon: Lieu de la prise de vue Voir cet endroit et d’autres images sur : OpenStreetMap: Conditions d’utilisation. [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. It is made from several materials, including marble, granite, concrete and brick.The Parthenon is a Doric temple supported by ionic columns. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645–1650). Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. [21], The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. [2], The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. The Pantheon is the best preserved of all Roman buildings. 1869 x 1301 jpeg 824kB. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. In 202, the building was repaired by the joint emperors Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla (fully Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), for which there is another, smaller inscription on the architrave of the façade, under the aforementioned larger text. Autres résolutions : 320 × 208 pixels | 640 × 415 pixels | 1 024 × 664 pixels | 1 280 × 831 pixels | 3 218 × 2 088 pixels. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. [16] The former would help explain how the building could have so easily lost its original name and purpose (Ziolkowski contends that it was originally the Temple of Mars in Campo)[17] in such a relatively short period of time.[18]. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. [54], The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome. [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple romain situé sur la Piazza della Rotonda, à Rome, en plein cœur historique.Son nom vient des mots grecs pan (tout) et theios (divin), que l'on peut traduire par "tous les dieux" .. Historique [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",[23] that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"[24] and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». Nama Pantheon berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti Rumah Semua Dewa. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. Weddings are also held there from time to time. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Français : L'autel principal de l'église Santa Maria ad Martyres (le Pantheon), Rome, Italie. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. [5] The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. Pantheon, The Ancient Roman Building - Traveldigg.com. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. They also organize picket guards at the tombs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan yang dikonstruksikan pada tahun 27 SM sebagai kuil berbentuk bulat di pusat kota Roma. [3] The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).[4]. Cet usage fut initié en 1520 : le peintre Raphaël repose au Panthéon de Rome, exemple qui fut suivi au Panthéon de Paris et en d'autres lieux. [34] On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.[35]. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Panthéon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia. [6], The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). File:Jakob Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1836.jpg. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. On peut voir su… The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. The Pantheon (meaning "Temple of all the gods") is a building in Rome. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … 7.12). [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). [51] Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison[53] found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. Pantheon - Colosseum Rome Tickets . The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. His fiancée, Maria Bibbiena is buried to the right of his sarcophagus; she died before they could marry. [8] His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. [51] The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary. Die digter Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (1791−1863), 'n boorling van Rome, het een van sy «Romeinse sonette» aan La Rotonna gewy. 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis ; Metadata; Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixels. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 6 février 2020 à 11:23. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. English: The main altar of the church Sancta Maria ad Martyres (the Pantheon), in Rome, Italy. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. [61], Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. not "Aedes Panthei" (temple of all the gods). [47] After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. The present high altars and the apses were commissioned by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721) and designed by Alessandro Specchi. [30][31] This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli.

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